Daños ecológicos y sanitarios en el ambiente y en los alimentos por la presencia de heptacloro

María Guadalupe Prado Flores, Alejandra Martínez Ibarra

Resumen

La contaminación ambiental planetaria está vigente y tiene efectos evidentes sobre los recursos del medio, las poblaciones de organismos, la salud humana y la alimentación. Entre los agentes contaminantes se encuentran los plaguicidas organoclorados, donde el heptacloro y su metabolito, el epóxido de heptacloro, juegan un papel importante. La selección de este compuesto responde a su naturaleza persistente, a los efectos de aplicaciones excesivas del heptacloro en prácticas agropecuarias, las cuales han generado residualidad objetable en medios abióticos y bióticos, así como a la ausencia de legislación en su producción y manejo en el territorio mexicano y a evidencias de su acción tóxica. En esta revisión se describe información sobre los niveles ecológicos y sanitarios que convergen en la alimentación; se mencionan evidencias de daños genéticos y metabólicos y se analizan algunos mecanismos de acción relacionados con el sistema perturbado por las exposiciones masivas del xenobiótico.

Palabras clave

alimentos; contaminación ambiental; epóxido de heptacloro; heptacloro; plaguicidas; prácticas agropecuarias

Texto completo:

HTML PDF XML EPUB

Referencias

Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Concise International Chemical Assessment. Heptachlor. OMS 2006; Document 70, Geneva, Switzerland.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). FAOSTAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home 03/02/2017

Kegley SE, Hill BR, Orme S, Choi AH. PAN Pesticide Database, Pesticide Action Network, North America San Francisco, CA [en línea]. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/ 09/12/2016.

Dawson A, Eddleston M, Senarathna L, Mohamed F, Gawarammana I, Bowe S. et al. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study. PLoSMed. 2011; 7(10):e1000357.

Nurhayati L, Gunlazuardi J, Ardiwinata AN, Saefumillah A. Biotransformation of heptachlor to hydroxychlordene by soil bacteria. Res J of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sci. 2015; 6(5):1079-1084.

Dirección General de Epidemiología (DGE). Anu ario de Morbilidad 1984- 2016 en línea; Anu ario de Morbilidad 1984- 2016 en línea; http://www.epidemiologia.salud.gob.mx/anuario/html/anuarios.html 02/02/2017

AMIFAC. http://www.panoramaagrario.com/tag/proy-nom-000-sag-fitosal-2013.

Norma Mexicana NOM-000SAG-FITO/SSAI-2016. COFEPRIS http://www.cofeprisimir.gob/mx/expedients/19509.

Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards WHO/FAO http://www.codexalimentrius.org

Base de datos de sustancias tóxicas y peligrosas. ISTAS (RISCTOX) http://www./istas.net/risctox/index.asp.

García HJ, Leyva MJB, Martínez IOE, Hernández OMI, et al. Estado Actual de la investigación sobre plaguicidas en México. Rev Int Contam Ambie.2018;34(Especial sobre Contaminación y Toxicología por Plaguicidas, CTP):29-60.

Fendick EA, Mather-Mihaich E, Houck KA, St Clair MB, Faust JB, Rockwell CH, et al. Ecological toxicology and human health effects of heptachlor. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol.1990;111:61-142.

Tomlin CDS. The Pesticide Manual. Eleventh Edition. British Crop Protection Council.2000; pp. 394.

Heptacloro y epóxido de heptacloro (Heptachlor/ Heptachlor Epoxide). http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/es/toxfaqs/es_tfacts12.htm

Samuel A, Gezehegne M, Bedaso K. Review on chemical residues in milk and their public health concern in Ethiopia. J Nutrition and Food Sci. 2016;6(4):524.

Witczak A, Abdel-Gawad H. Assessment of health risk from organochlorine pesticides residues in high-fat spreadable foods produced in Poland. J Environmental Sci and Health. Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes. 2014;49(12):917-928.

Stubin AI, Brosnan TM, Porter KD, Jimenez L, Lochan H. Organic priority pollutants in New York City municipal wastewater: 1989-1993. Water Environm Researchm.1996;68:1037-1044.

Ayas Z, Barlas NE, Kolankaya D. Determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in various environments and organisms in Göksu Delta, Turkey. Aquatic Toxicology.1997; 39:171-181.

El-Kabbany S, Rashed MM, Zayed MA. Monitoring of the pesticide levels in some water supplies and agricultural land, in El-Haram, Giza . J Hazardous Materials. 2000;72(1):11-21.

Prado FG, Díaz GG, Gutiérrez TR, Vega LS, Noa PM, Chávez GE. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche de cabra de Querétaro, Querétaro, México. Vet Mex. 2007;38(3):286-301.

Schettino B, Gutiérrez R, Ortiz R, Vega S, Urban G, Ramírez A. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;91(2):154-159.

Gutiérrez R, Ortiz R, Vega S, Schettino B, Ramirez ML, Pérez JJ. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico. J Environ Sci Health B. 2013;48(11):935-940.

Murga MN, Gutierrez R, Vega S, Perez J, Ortiz R, Schettino B. Organochlorine pesticides distribution in an organic production system for cow’s milk in Chiapas, Mexico. J Environmen Sci Health. 2016;51:589-593.

Gutiérrez T, Vega S, Schettino B, Prado G, Ramírez ML, Vázquez F, et al. Organochlorine Pesticides in infant Milk Formulas Marketed in the South of Mexico City. Food and Nutrition Sci.2014; (5):1290-1298.

Real M, Ramírez A, Pérez E, Noa M. Residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche cruda y pasteurizada de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México. Rev Salud Anim.2005;27(1):48-54.

Vázquez-Moreno L, Langure A, Orantes C, Flores ME, Bermúdez MC. Incidence of pesticide resi dues in adipose tissue of beef, pork and poultry from plants located in northwestern Mexico. J Muscle Foods.1999;10(4):295-303.

Botello AV, Ruede-Quintana L, Diaz-González G, Toledo A. Persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) in coastal lagoons of the subtropical Mexican Pacific. Bull Environ Contam Tox. ; 2000 64(3):390-397.

González-Farias F, Cisneros Estrada X, Fuentes Ruíz C, Díaz González G, Botello AV. Pesticides distribution in sediments of a tropical coastal lagoonadjacent to an irrigation district in northwest Mexico. Environ Technol.2002;23 (11):1247-1256.

García-Hernández J, Glenn EP, Flessa K. Identification of chemicals of potential concern (CO PECs) in anthropogenic wetlands of the Colorado River delta. Ecol Eng. 2013;59:52-60.

Valdespino C, Huerta-Peña AI, Pérez-Pacheco A, Rendón-Von Osten J. Persisten organochlorine pesticides in two hylidae species from the La Antigua waters hed, Veracruz, México. Bull Environ Contam Tox. 2015;94(1):17-22.

Vargas-González HH, Méndez-Rodríguez LC, García- Hernández J, Mendoza-Salgado RA, Zenteno-Savín T, et al. Persistent organicpollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastallagoons of the Gulf of Califor nia. J Environ Sci Health. 2016;51(7):435-445.

Leyva-Morales JB, Valdez-Torres JB, Bastidas-Bastidas PJ, Angulo- Escalante MA, Sarmiento-Sánchez JI, Barraza-Lobo AL, et al. Monitoring of pesticides residues in northwestern Mexico rivers. Acta Universitaria.2017;27(1):45-54.

Aldana-Madrid ML, Valenzuela-Quintanar AI, Silveira- Gramont MI, Rodríguez Olibarría G, Grajeda-Cota P, Zuno-Floriano FG, et al. Residual pyrethroids in fresh horticultural products in Sonora, Mexico. Bull Environ ContamTox.2011;87 (4):436-439.

Velasco A, Hernández S, Ramírez M, Ortíz I. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. JEnviron Sciand Health. 2014; Part B Published Online: 09 May 2014.

Pérez MA, Navarro H, Miranda E. Residuos de plaguicidas en hortalizas: problemática y riesgos en México. Rev Int de Contam Ambie. 2013;29(Número especial sobre plaguicidas):45-64.

Pérez JJ, Ortiz R, Ramírez ML, Olivares J, Ruíz D, Montiel D. Presence of organochlorine pesticides in xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle) in the central region of Mexico. International Journal of Food Contamination. 2016;3:21.

Claver A, Ormad P, Rodríguez L, Ovelleiro JL. Study of the presence of pesticides in surface waters in the Ebro river basin. Chemosphere. 2006; 64(9):1437-1443.

Masci M, Orban E, Nevigato T. Organochlorine pesticide residues: an extensive monitoring of Italian fishery and aquaculture. Chemosphere. 2014;94:190-198.

Nomen R,Sempere J,Chávez F,de López NA,Rovira MD. Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012;19(8):3547-3555.

Vorkamp K, Bossi R, Bester K, Bollmann UE, Boutrup S. New priority substances of the European Water Framework Directive: biocides, pesticides and brominated flame retardants in the aquatic environment of Denmark. Sci Total Environ.2014;470-471:459-468.

Avancini RM, Silva IS, Rosa AC, Sarcinelli P de N, de Mesquite SA. Organochlorine compounds in bovine milk from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul-BrazilChemosphere . 2013; 90(9):2408-2413.

Chang GR. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in aquatic environments and fishes in Taiwan and their risk assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int . 2018;25(8):7699-7708.

Dobrinas S, Soceanu A, Popescu V, Coatu V. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk poder. J. Dairy Res. doi: 10.1017/ 2016;83(2):261-265.

Lans-Ceballos E, Lombana-Gomez M, Pinedo-Hernandez J. Residuos de pesticidas organoclorados en leche pasteurizada distribuida en Montería, Colombia. Rev Salud Pública. 2018;20(2):208-214.

Ennaceur S, Gandoura N, Driss MR. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk of mothers living in northern Tunisia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2007;78(5):325-329.

Martínez IA, Morimoto S, Cerbón M, Prado FG. Effects on the reproductive parameters of two generations of Rattus norvegicusoffspring from dams exposed to heptachlor during gestation and lactation. Environmental Toxicol. 2016;32(3):856-868.

Dehn PF, Allen-Mocherie S, Karen J, Theneppan A. Organochlorine insecticides: Impact on human HepG2 cytochrome P4501A, 2B activities and glutation levels. Toxicol in vitrom. 2004;19(2):261-273.

Amer NM, El-Tahlawy EM, Abdelgelil KS. Pesticides usage in agriculture among rural women in Egypt: association between serum organo-chlorine pesticide residues and occurrence of diabetes. World J Med Sci. 2013;9(1):8-15.

Noakes PS, Taylor P, Wilkinson S, Prescott SL. The relationship between persistent organic pollutants in maternal and neonatal tissues and immune responses to allergens: A novel exploratory study. Chemosphere. 2006;63(8):1304-1311.

Zhang J, Liu R, Niu L, Zhu S, Zhang Q, Zhao M,et al.Determination of endocrine-disrupting potencies of agricultural soils in China via a battery of steroid receptor bioassays. Environ Pollutm. 2018;234:846-854.

Custer CM, Custer TW, Dummer PM, Goldberg D, Franson JC. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010-2015. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35(12):3071-3092.

Kern JK, Geier DA, Homme KG, King PG, Bjørklund G, Chirumbolo S, Geier MR. 2017. Developmental neurotoxicants and the vulnerable male brain: a systematic review of suspected neurotoxicants that disproportionally affect males . Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2017;77(4):269-296.

Caudle WM, Richardson JR, Wang M, Miller GW. Perinatal heptachlor exposure increases expression of presynaptic dopaminergic markers in mouse striatum. Neurotoxicol. 2005;(4):721-728.

Abualfaraj N, Gurian PL, Olson MS. Assessing Residential Exposure Risk from Spills of Flowback Water from Marcellus Shale Hydraulic Fracturing Activity. Int J Environ Res Public Health.2018;15(4). pii: E727.doi:10.3390/ijerph150407

Elbialy Z, Ismail T, Elasely AM. Assessment of genotoxic effects of pesticide residues and related haemato-biochemical parameters on farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) in Kafrelsheikh governorate, Egypt. Alexandria J Vet Sci. 2015;44:136-146.

Vromman V, Maghuin-Rogister G, Vleminckx C, Saegerman C, Pussemier L, Huyghebaert A. Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium. Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assessm. 2014;31(5):872-888.

Prado G, Bhalli JA, Marcos R. Genotoxicity of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Mut Res. 2009;673(2):87-91.

Carbajal-López Y, Gómez-Arroyo S, Villalobos-Pietrini R, Calderón-Segura ME, Martínez-Arroyo A. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016;23(3):2513-2520.

Agencia Internacional de Investigación en Cáncer (IARC). Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. http://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdfs-online/monographs/index.php

Reuber MD. Carcinogenicity of heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1987;(3):85-114.

Martinez MJ, Páez IM, Palencia SM, Peña ME. Dispositivos de muestreo de plaguicidas en aguas superficiales basados en adsorbentes de fibra de vidrio-poli (etileno-co-vinilacetato.Rev LatinAm Metal Mat. 2018;38(1):9-20.

Saito-Shida S, Nemoto S, Teshima R, Akiyama H. Quantitative analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2016;33(1):119-127.

Wu M, Liu J, Li W, Liu M, Jiang C, Li Z. Temporal dynamics of the compositions and activities of soil microbial communities post-application of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole in paddy soils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;144:409-415.

Alarcón-Ángeles G, Guix M, Silva WC, Ramírez-Silva MT, Palomar-Pardavé M, Romero-Romo M, et al. Enzyme entrapment by electropolymerization onto a carbon nanotubes-modified screen-printed electrode. Biosens Bioelectron. 2010;26(4):1768-1773.

Riwthang S, Schreinemacher S, Crovernmann C, Berger Th. Agricultural comercialization: Risk, perceptions, risk management and the role of pesticides in Thailand. Kasetsart J Soc Sci. 2016;38(3).

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.