Resistencia antimicrobiana en bacterias de origen animal: desafíos para su contención desde el laboratorio

Ivette Espinosa Castaño, Michel Báez Arias, Rosa Elena Hernández Fillor, Yanet López Dorta, Evelyn Lobo Rivero, Belkis Corona-González

Resumen

La resistencia antimicrobiana (RAM) constituye una crisis global con impacto en la salud humana y animal. El consumo de antibióticos en la crianza animal, también propicia la selección y propagación de cepas y sus determinantes de resistencia al ambiente y en la cadena de producción de alimentos. Una de las iniciativas estratégicas para la contención de la RAM, es asegurar el uso apropiado de los antibióticos disponibles, en lo cual, los laboratorios de microbiología tienen un importante papel, a través del diagnóstico y las pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo proporcionar información sobre las pautas, dificultades y los desafíos en la interpretación de datos derivados de las pruebas de laboratorio para la identificación de bacterias, su tipificación y la estimación del perfil de susceptibilidad a los antibióticos. También se describen enfoques para la distinción entre bacterias patógenas, comensales e indicadoras a considerar en los planes de vigilancia y monitoreo de la RAM. En la crianza de los animales suelen aparecer cepas zoonóticas o indicadoras de multirresistencia, que son prioridad en programas de vigilancia, bajo el concepto Una Salud, por presentar resistencia adquirida con ventaja para su diseminación. Ejemplos alarmantes en los últimos años son Escherichia coli productora de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (E. coli BLEE) y Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (SARM). Además, se diserta sobre las expresiones transitorias de resistencia microbiana, las biopelículas y células persistentes, que explican las recidivas de infecciones y aún son poco consideradas en la medicina veterinaria. Finalmente, se enfatiza en la necesidad de estrategias para armonizar y divulgar datos que soporten guías para el tratamiento de infecciones bacterianas de interés veterinario.

Palabras clave

resistencia antimicrobiana; animales; pruebas de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana; diagnóstico

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Referencias

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