Influenza animal en el Caribe: revisión sistemática de investigación y vigilancia

Pastor Alfonso, Carmen Laura Perera González, Haymee Canales Becerra

Resumen

Las actuales estrategias de vigilancia de la influenza y de mitigación de pandemias, enfocadas desde la perspectiva de Una Salud, exigen una capacidad geográfica más amplia para la investigación y vigilancia de virus influenza en animales (VI). El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la distribución temporal y geográfica de las investigaciones y la vigilancia sobre VI en animales en la región del Caribe. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, basado en la declaración PRISMA para revisar sistemáticamente los artículos generados en países del Caribe desde enero de 1950 hasta marzo de 2019. Se obtuvieron referencias de las bases de datos PubMed Central y Sciendirect, mientras que Google Académico y algunas bases de datos de enfermedades animales se utilizaron como fuentes suplementarias de información. El proceso de selección identificó 32 artículos o informes de enfermedades generados entre 2007 y marzo de 2019, que promediaron 2,66/año. Hubo una tendencia general al crecimiento del número de artículos en el tiempo, aunque varió entre los temas. El diagnóstico representó la mayoría de los estudios (43,75 %) y la distribución por especies mostró predominio de aquellos dirigidos a aves (silvestres y de corral) con respecto a cerdos y caballos. Los informes de la enfermedad se restringieron al virus de la influenza aviar (VIA) en aves de corral con cinco notificaciones enviadas por tres países diferentes (República Dominicana, Haití y Belice), debidas a un VIA H5N2 de baja patogenicidad. Esta revisión sistemática sugirió la necesidad de estudios sobre la influenza animal en el Caribe basados en la evaluación de riesgos y la creación de redes a través de la colaboración internacional.

Palabras clave

Una Salud; influenza; vigilancia; Caribe

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