Actividad antibacteriana de aceites esenciales de plantas cultivadas en Cuba sobre cepas de Salmonella enterica

Annie Rubio-Ortega, María del Carmen Travieso-Novelles, Yamilka Riverón-Alemán, Ailin Martínez-Vasallo, Joan Peña-Rodríguez, Ivette Espinosa-Castaño, Oriela Pino-Pérez

Resumen

Las infecciones por Salmonella spp. (salmonelosis) son la segunda causa mayoritaria de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos a nivel mundial. Ante la creciente emergencia de cepas resistentes a antibióticos, se buscan alternativas para el tratamiento; los aceites esenciales son productos que se destacan por sus potencialidades como antimicrobianos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la actividad antibacteriana de aceites esenciales de plantas cultivadas en Cuba sobre cepas de Salmonella enterica. Los aceites esenciales se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación o expresión. Se realizó la evaluación de la acción antibacteriana de 15 aceites por difusión en agar; se seleccionaron los promisorios y se les determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI) y mínima bactericida (CMB) por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Los aceites esenciales de Ocimum gratissimum L., Lippia graveolens (Kunth) y Thymus vulgaris L. inhibieron el crecimiento de las cepas de Salmonella enterica, incluyendo cepas resistentes a antibióticos. Los valores de CMI y CMB de los aceites oscilaron entre 0,5 mg/mL y 1 mg/mL, respectivamente. Estos aceites esenciales son candidatos promisorios para el desarrollo de productos antibacterianos destinados al control de la salmonelosis.

Palabras clave

aceite esencial; salmonelosis; cepas resistentes

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