TERMINOLOGY CONCEPTS OF PROBIOTIC AND PREBIOTIC AND THEIR ROLE IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL HEALTH

Celia Lucía Ferreira, S. Salminen, Lukasz Grzeskowiak, Maria Antonieta Brizuela, Lilian Sanchez, Heloísa Carneiro, M. Bonnet

Resumen

The mode of action of specific probiotic bacteria and specific prebiotic ingredients and their effects on the intestinal microbiota modulation in humans and animals has been demonstrated in many studies. Intestine is characterized for harboring a complex and dynamic microbiota which, among others, has a function to protect the host from inflammatory disorders. A mature and balanced endogenous microbiota has also an important role in the maintenance of a desirable activity of the immune system. Deviations in gut microbiota composition, due to improper diet, radiotherapy, antibiotic treatment, stress and others, may lead to a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. To overcome an unbalanced microbiota, the consumption of specific probiotics and prebiotics has been proved to be effective. For more than three decades, many probiotic microorganisms have been characterized and evaluated. However, the term prebiotic has only recently been identified, characterized and evaluated in human intervention studies. The list of prebiotic ingredients remains limited, and yacon (Smallantus sonchifolia) is an Andean root to which prebiotic attributes have been inferred recently. Humans and animals could seemingly benefit from the consumption of specific prebiotics and probiotics. In this work, terminology aspects of pre- and probiotics, and their roles in human and animal health are discussed.

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