Situación de vectores de CaLsol que infectan solanáceas en la región de las Américas. Implicaciones para Cuba. I: Elementos de su identificación, distribución y bioecología

Heyker L. Baños Díaz, Lizandra Guerra Arzuaga, Alberto Fereres

Resumen

La seguridad alimentaria mundial estará amenazada en los próximos años por la aparición y propagación de plagas emergentes en los cultivos. Los psílidos se consideran posibles plagas destructivas, debido a la relación existente entre estos insectos y algunos importantes patógenos de plantas. Bactericera cockerelli Sulc (Hemiptera: Triozidae) es reconocido como vector eficiente de la bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CaLsol), una plaga invasiva según la EPPO, causante de enfermedades en papa, tomate, pimiento, otras solanáceas, y algunas especies de Apiaceae. Se revisaron 61 artículos científicos relacionados con el tema, conociendo que el complejo vector-bacteria está presente en diferentes países del mundo en el continente americano, Europa y Nueva Zelanda. El cambio en las variables climáticas, la distribución biológica de este sistema insecto-vector, la alta plasticidad ecológica, que le permite desarrollar diferentes biotipos dependiendo de las características del área donde se desarrolle, pudieran complejizar el control/manejo del sistema insecto-patógeno. Estas características hacen necesario mantener una vigilancia extrema en aquellos países donde aún no se encuentra presente. Hasta el momento, la bacteria y el vector no se encuentran presentes en Cuba; sin embargo, la cercanía a países en las que está presente, la existencia de condiciones climáticas optimas, de plantas hospedantes, así como el incremento del turismo y el comercio internacional, hacen necesario brindar información actualizada sobre esta enfermedad, los agentes causales y sus vectores, como una contribución a la preparación del personal científico-técnico-productivo y decisores.

Palabras clave

Bactericera cockerelli; cambio climático; Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CaLso); plagas invasoras; vigilancia

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Referencias

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