Situación de vectores de CaLso que infectan solánceas en la región de las Américas. Implicaciones para Cuba. II: Plantas hospedantes, daños y manejo.

Heyker L. Baños Díaz, Lizandra Guerra Arzuaga, Alberto Fereres

Resumen

El psílido de la papa/tomate (Solanum tuberosum L. y Solanum lycopersicum L.) Bactericera cockerelli Sulc es reconocido como una amenaza para la producción de solanáceas, por ser eficiente vector de la bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CaLso) en América, Europa y Nueva Zelanda. Las características biológicas y genéticas del insecto hacen difícil su manejo, así como también el alto número de plantas hospedantes, de refugio y de alimentación en las que se puede encontrar. Además, la influencia del cambio climático causó el establecimiento y la colonización de poblaciones de psílidos en nuevas áreas y países. En la actualidad, los psílidos vectores de microorganismos causantes de enfermedades en plantas están distribuidos ampliamente y se realizan estudios para entender el impacto de sus poblaciones en sistemas intensivos de producción agrícola. En la última década se incrementaron, además, los estudios encaminados a la aplicación de nuevas técnicas de manejo y control biológico, para disponer de alternativas rápidas y eficientes que permitan reducir las afectaciones en los cultivos y en la economía. Se analizaron 74 artículos científicos relacionados con las plantas hospedantes, estrategias de control biológico, químico y alternativas novedosas para el manejo de insectos vectores. Con el objetivo de mantener la vigilancia sobre el vector, se profundizó en la situación y estado actual de la identificación de estas especies en Cuba, así como la situación mundial, en la región de las Américas y el Caribe relacionado con la presencia del sistema cultivo-psílido-CaLsoy las posibles implicaciones para la agricultura cubana.

Palabras clave

Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CaLso); Bactericera cockerelli; cambio climático; plagas invasoras; vigilancia.

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Referencias

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